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 Carnivorous Plants
by Makoto Honda
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CP Book Library 
 CP Stamps

 CP Bibliography
 CP Articles
My CP Trip Summary
 More CP Photos
 B&W Photo Gallery
 Seed Photo Library

 Germination Photos
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 Notes on Photography
 My Photo Equipment




Carnivorous Plant Web Ring
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International Carnivorous Plant Society



Carnivorous Plants / Insectivorous Plants in the Wilderness
--- Online CP Photo Book ---

Click photos above to open the Online CP Photo Book...


Carnivorous Plant Juvenile Literature: Venus Flytrap / A Bug-Eating Plant / Science for a Young Audience

Photo: Cobra Plant / Cobra Lily / Darlingtonia

Carnivorous Plant Juvenile Literature: Meat-Eating Plants / Science for a Young Audience


Mushroom Spore Rain 2024






2023-Oct-14 Annular Eclipse -

As observed from Southern California. A beautiful, clear blue sky in southern California, at 9:15AM, Saturday morning, Oct. 14, 2023.

This is the maximum eclipse magnitude here (~65%).


Paphiopedilum - Accumulation of random mutations, guided by pollinator interactions, have resulted in this weird-looking floral pitcher.
Is this pitcher carnivorous? I do not see why not. If an insect dies in it and decomposes, and nutrients absorbed, the plant will benefit...
I have kept several Phalaenopsis orchids in the kitchen windowsill and they bloomed every year. Is this Paphiopedilum harder to grow?
Copyright (c) 2023 Makoto Honda. All Rights Reserved.


An early morning stroll, summer 2022, Nikon Z7+Voigtlander 10mm f/5.6. Macro-mount adapter (LM-Z)

Copyright (c) 2022 Makoto Honda


2021/10/27  Mushroom  Nikon Z7+AF MicorNikkor 60mm f/2.8  (C) Makoto Honda

2020/11/25  Dandelion  Nikon Z7+AF MicorNikkor 60mm f/2.8  (C) Makoto Honda

Rain of spores

Mushroom Spore Rain

Drosera rotundifolia (round-leaf sundew), northern California. Photo Copyright 2020 Makoto Honda. All rights reserved.
Nikon Z7 + Voigtlander 10mm f/5.6


2019-May-12 Darlingtonia californica - Butterfly Valley, Quincy, CA
Cobra plant blossom

2018-September-10.  Venus Flytrap Germination - The first trap

(2019-03-06 : Image stacking by Photoshop 2018)



Nikon Z7 Arrival-Sept 28
Z7 User Manual Menus
Z7 Hands-On Testing
2019-02-26::: Voigtlander 10mm Macro Adapter

NEW 2019-02-07 : Nikon Z7 with Voigtlander Heliar-Hyper Wide 10mm F5.6

Nikon Z7 with Leica 40mm F2 (for Leica-Minolta CL)

2018-10-29 12:30am Moon, Nikon Z7, Tamron 500mm f/8, Nikon TC14-A, 1/350 sec, ISO 800


Venus Flytrap Germination

2018-09-07 : Venus Flytrap Germination : A four-week-old seedling .

2018-09-09 : Venus Flytrap Germination : Venus flytrap trap.

2018-09-10 : Venus Flytrap Germination : This baby trap triggers.

2018-September-20.  Venus Flytrap Germination

What's New - 2018-June-07
Venus Flytrap Trap-Closure Sequence
VF Trap-Lobe Curling         VF Trap-Lobe Curling 

What's New - 2018-May-20

World Map / Carnivorous Plant Species List

Carnivorous Plant Illustration

Venus flytrap midrib section. (c) Makoto Honda.

Nikon D300, MicroNikkor 60mm F2.8  @f 11, 1/500, ISO200  Natural sunlight. (c) Makoto Honda.
Venus Flytrap Trap Surface / Trigger Hair & Nectar Secretion

Nikon D300, MicroNikkor 60mm F2.8  @f 16, 1/60, ISO200  Natural sunlight. (c) Makoto Honda.
Drosera capensis Prey Capture

Venus Flytrap Leaf Closure Sequence

What's New - 2018-March-01
Digital Photography - Lens Resolution

Total number of dots in final print for full-frame (FX) and APS-C (DX) sensor 

What's New - 2018-Jan-03
I found an interesting article on Utricularia trapping by Simon Poppinga, et al.

What's New - 2021-03-12
Genlisea Illustration
Analyzing the Genlisea's trap morphology is a mind-twisting endeavor!

What's New - 2018-01-08
Drosophyllum Illustration

What's New - 2017-12-28
Utricularia Illustration

Utricularia Trap Illustration

Utricularia Flower Illustration

What's New - 2017-12-27
Aldrovanda Illustration

Aldrovanda Trap Illustration

What's New - 2017-12-02

Aldrovanda / the waterwheel plant
- Excellent high-speed video capture -
My view Snap-Trap Evolution

What's New - 2017-11-10  Article on Venus Flytrap Trap
"Fast nastic motion of plants and bioinspired structures"
An excellent article, very well written, summarizing the current understanding
of various movement in plants
including Venus flytrap 

Anatomy of Carnivory
I. Anatomy of Carnivory
II. Caryophyllales - Gland Evolution
III. Snap-Trap - Aldrovanda/Dionaea
IV. Lamiales - Pinguicula/Genlisea/Utricularia

2017-September-23  Nepenthes Pitcher
Study of Studio Lighting

Carnivorous Plants in the Wilderness

Click photo above for detail

Carnivorous Plants Story
Kindle Edition

Click the book above to see the contents...
See site HERE


Classification of Carnivorous Plants

Angiosperm Phylogeny
APG IV (2016)

2017-April-08:  Very enjoyable books by Stewart McPherson filled with a lot of information.
Comprehensive summary and discussion of all CP genera,
especially those often not widely discussed, such as
Triphyophyllum, Drosophyllum, Byblis, Ibicella, Philcoxia, Roridula, Genlisea
Very-well researched, 1440-page (vol.1&2) work. Highly recommended.


2017-April-01:  An excellent article about Utric traps by
Amit K. Singh, Sunil Prabhakar, Sanjay P. Sane
Click here

An excellent article by
Bartosz J. Płachno, Lubomír Adamec, Iwona Kaminska on Polypompholyx

I am reading this excellent article...
lastic models of the fast traps of carnivorous Dionaea and Aldrovanda
by Marc Joyeux & Simon Poppinga

but I disagree with their general conclusion (my view)

An excellent carnivorous plant website
Henning S. Heide-Jřrgensen...
particularly on Utricularia.

I am reading this excellent article...In-depth summary of CP.
Carnivorous Plants
The luring, capturing and digesting mechanisms they have evolved
to devour insects augment their supply of mineral nutrients and
enable them to survive in habitats where few other plants can live
by Yolande Heslop-Harrison

I am reading four books: Aldrovanda / Genlisea / Pinguicula
- See my Amazon book reviews -


Photo: Insectivorous Plants in the Wilderness

Utricularia intermedia, Oregon.



Carnivorous Plants in the Wilderness

Click the book above to see some sample pages...
8.5 x 11 inches / 274 pages / Paperback

Click photo above for detail


Eaten Alive by Carnivorous Plants         
Carnivorous Plants Juvenile Literature  
(Grades 2-4)

Click the books above to see the contents...

English Edition from
Also Available in Japanese Edition
日本語版 from

 2016-07-05                                                              Pinguicula ionantha flower


Pinguicula ionantha with a syrphid fly, early March, the Florida panhandle.
This fly is not a true pollinator - just messing with the palate hairs of the flower,
which, by the way, is a food body of the flower designed to divert
the attention of non-pollinators away from the precious pollen.


 New 2016-02-16                                                                Utricularia:     Tuber  vs.  Air Shoot    (Reference: Peter Taylor The Genus Utricularia 1989)

Tubers are water reservoirs for the bladderworts mostly found in epiphytic and lithophytic species. The plants withdraw water from tubers during the periods of desiccation. Tubers are formed as basal thickening/swelling of stolons. In U. inflata and some allied aquatic species, small tuber-like organs are formed at the apex of leafless shoots which descend into the substrate. This happens in a stressed condition where the water level drops extremely low.   

Utricularia alpina flowers                       Utricularia alpina with tubers                        Utricularia alpina tuber

 Air shoots
are filiform shoots arising from the stolons of some aquatic species (in section Utricularia). Air shoots float near the water surface. Air shoots may bear a number of small bract-like organs, or just have a round organ at the apex, depending on the species. Air shoots are often produced in dense growth. They eventually grow into normal leaf-bearing stolons. The true purpose of air shoots is not known. My guess is that air shoots facilitate rapid vegetative reproduction...

Utricularia inflata Air Shoot

 New 2015-01-27           A newly Recognized Carnivorous Plant  -  Lindernia cleistandra from Australia!!!

Newly recognized carnivorous plant from Australia

Lindernia cleistandra
FAMILY Linderniaceae


 2012-10-01                              Pinguicula vulgaris / Michigan USA

Pinguicula vulgaris

 2012-08-01                               Utricularia geminiscapa / Michigan USA

Utricularia geminiscapa

  2011-08-15                               Utricularia intermedia

 Utricularia intermedia, southern Oregon. July 11, 2011. (Click photo for more)



 Carnivorous Plants at a Glance

Carnivorous Plants at a Glance




  Plate Tectonics /  Creationist Argument 2015-11-29
  Pinguicula   Pinguicula vulgaris / Michigan, USA  2012-09-30
  Utricularia   Utricularia geminiscapa / Michigan, USA  2012-08-01
  Utricularia   Utricularia intermedia  2011-08-15
  Dionaea   Venus Flytrap - "Cup Trap"  2011-05-01
  Flowering Plants Family Tree - APG III (2009)  2010-10-11
  Pinguicula   Pinguicula moctezumae  2010-09-28
  Pitcher Plants of Americas - Family Tree / Phylogeny of Sarraceniacea  2010-05-12
  Utricularia   Utricularia Flower Structure & Utricularia cornuta  2010-04-27
  Trip 2010 April  Pinguicula macroceras ssp. nortensis  2010-04-23
  January 2010    Monarch Butterfly Grove in California  2010-01-12
  Trip 2009 May  Utricularia floridana 2009-12-31
  Trip 2009 May Pinguicula primuliflora in the Florida Panhandle  2009-12-24
  Trip 2009 May  Orchids flowers often encountered with carnivorous plants in the U.S.  2009-12-02
  Trip 2008 June  Proboscidea parviflora Sunflowers and Devil's Claw 2009-12-22
  Trip 2009 July   Pinguicula vulgaris in Northern Michigan  2009-08-10
  Trip 2009 May  Drosera filiformis variety filiformis "Red" & Hybrid with var. tracyi  2009-08-02
  150th anniversary of the publication of The Origin of Species  Charles Darwin 2009-07-10
  Trip 2009 May  Sarracenia rubra subspecies alabamensis  2009-06-07
  Trip 2009 May  Sarracenia rubra subspecies wherryi 2009-06-06
  Trip 2009 May  Sarracenia psittacina  2009-06-08
  Darlingtonia  Darlingtonia californica - Compass Plant.  2009-02-09
  Genlisea  Genlisea flower 2008-10-28
  Trip 2008 July  Utricularia geminiscapa in Michigan, July 21, 2008.  2008-09-16
  Trip 2008 July  Drosera linearis : Linear-leaved Sundew - In Michigan  2008-09-24
  Trip 2008 May  Florida / Alabama / Georgia Trip - 2008 May   2008-07-24
  Trip 2008 March  Florida panhandle Trip - 2008 March 2008-03-24
  Utricularia  Bladderwort - What is the function of "air shoot" in Utricularia? 2008-05-24
  Butterfly  Monarch Butterfly / Over-Wintering - Coronado Butterfly Preserve  2008-02-11
  Pinguicula   Butterwort Prey Capture - Pinguicula primuliflora & Orange Tick  2008-01-11
  Drosera   Drosera adelae Flowers  2008-01-12
  Drosera   Drosera adelae Capturing a Spider 2008-01-12
  Darlingtonia Cobra Head Re-examined - Anatomy of Cobra Lily's Pitcher Leaf 2007-10-31
  Utricularia  Pollinator of Utricularia macrorhiza in Oregon 2007-10-13
  Pinguicula   Pinguicula primuliflora & Ant   2007-10-15
  Pinguicula   Pinguicula moranensis & Prey  2007-06-01
  Drosera   Sundew Prey Capture - Drosera rotundifolia   2007-05-11
  Pinguicula   Butterwort's Glands  - Pinguicula moranensis 2007-05-11
  Drosera   Drosera capensis & Tick 2007-05-11
  Dionaea   Venus Flytrap Revisited - How VF Closes Its Trap  2007-04-24
  Sarracenia  List Added --- Sarracenia at a Glance   2007-03-03
  Nepenthes  Species List  By Species Name    By Date    2007-02-16
  Dionaea   Dionaea  X-mas Shot 2006-12-25
  Dionaea   Dionaea  Glands 2006-
 003 Trip 2006 May  Cobra Plants in Rain & Spiders, Northern California. 2007-09-20
 002 Trip 2006 August  Carnivorous Plants in Kalamazoo, Michigan 2006-09-13
 001 Trip 2006 July  Cobra Plants Near Redding, CA and Shasta City   2006-09-15
 001 Sarracenia   ICPS - S. alabamensis Distribution Program.  2003-03
 001 ICPS Event   2002 International Conference in Tokyo.  2002-06-20
 001 Darlingtonia  Cobra Plant Post Card.  2002-01-20

List of U.S. Species

 1.  Sarracenia     

 S. alata                                    var. alata        f. alata
 S. alata                                    var. alata        f. viridescens
 S. alata                                   
var. atrorubra
 S. alata                                   
var. cuprea
 S. alata                                   
var. nigropurpurea
 S. alata                                   
var. ornata
 S. alata                                   
var. rubrioperculata

 S. rubra          
ssp. rubra                                                                
 S. rubra           ssp. gulfensis                             f. gulfensis
 S. rubra          
ssp. gulfensis                             f. luteoviridis
 S. rubra          
ssp. wherryi
 S. rubra           
ssp. alabamensis
 S. rubra          
ssp. jonesii                               
f. jonesii

 S. rubra          
ssp. jonesii                                f. viridescens

 S. oreophila                           var. oreophila                          
 S. oreophila                           var. ornata

 S. leucophylla                       var. leucophylla        f. leucophylla       
 S. leucophylla                       var. leucophylla        f. viridescens             
 S. leucophylla                      
var. alba

 S. flava                                  var. flava                   f. flava             
 S. flava                                  var. flava                   f. viridescens             
 S. flava                                 
var. cuprea             
 S. flava                                  
var. maxima             
 S. flava                                 
var. rugelii             
 S. flava                                 
var. ornata            
 S. flava                                 
var. rubricorpora             
 S. flava                                 
var. atropurpurea             

 S. minor                                 var. minor                 f. minor
 S. minor                                 var. minor                 f. viridescens
 S. minor                                 
var. okefenokeensis 

 S. psittacina                            var. psittacina           f. psittacina
 S. psittacina                            var. psittacina           f. viridescens
 S. psittacina                           
var. okefenokeensis  
f. okefenokeensis
 S. psittacina                           
var. okefenokeensis
   f. luteoviridis

 S. purpurea   ssp. purpurea         var. purpurea          f. purpurea         
 S. purpurea  
ssp. purpurea         var. purpurea          f. heterophylla
 S. purpurea  
ssp. venosa          
var. venosa             f. venosa
 S. purpurea  
ssp. venosa          
var. venosa             f. pallidiflora
 S. purpurea  
ssp. venosa           var. burkii               
f. burkii
 S. purpurea  
ssp. venosa          
var. burkii  
             f. luteola
 S. purpurea  
ssp. venosa           var. montana 

 2.  Darlingtonia

 D. californica f. californica
 D. californica
f. viridiflora

 3.  Drosera  D. rotundifolia
 D. linearis
 D. anglica
 D. intermedia
 D. capillaris
 D. brevifolia
 D. filiformis
var. filiformis
 D. filiformis var. tracyi
 D. filiformis var. floridana
 4.  Dionaea  D. muscipula
 5.  Pinguicula                
 P. villosa
 P. macroceras
ssp. macroceras
P. macroceras
ssp. nortensis                                    
 P. lutea                                    
 P. caerulea                                    
 P. pumila                                    
 P. planifolia                                    
 P. ionantha                                    
 P. primuliflora                                    
 6.  Utricularia
 U. gibba
 U. striata
 U. floridana
 U. macrorhiza
 U. intermedia
 U. minor
 U. ochroleuca
 U. geminiscapa
 U. inflata
 U. radiata
 U. purpurea
 U. foliosa
 U. olivacea

 U. subulata
 U. cornuta
 U. juncea
 U. simulans
 U. resupinata
 U. amethystina


Carnivorous Plants Photography Web Site:  Copyright © 2001-2018 Makoto Honda. All Rights Reserved.  

Copyright © 2001-2018 Makoto Honda. All Rights Reserved.                                                                    since June 2001