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Carnivorous Plants in the Wilderness
by Makoto Honda
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Bibliography            LAST UPDATE: 2020-07-05



Achterberg, C. van. A Study about the Arthropoda Caught by Drosera Species. Entomologische Berichten. 33: 137-140.  1. VII 1973.

Adamec, Lubomir. Zero Water Flows in the Carnivorous Genus Genlisea. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 32: 46-48. 2003.

Adamec, Lubomir. Ecophysiological Investigation on Drosophyllum lusitanicum: Why Doesn't the Plant Dry Out? Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 38: 71-74. 2009.

Adamec, Lubomir. News in Ecophysiological Research on Aquatic Utricularia Traps. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 41: 92-104. 2012.

Adams, Richard M., II. and Clark Barton. The Fresh Eaters. Garden Journal (NYBG) 26(5): 154-157. 1976.

Adams, Richard M., II and George W. Smith. An S.E.M. Survey of the Five Carnivorous Pitcher Plant Genera. American Journal of Botany 64(3): 265-272. 1977.

Addicott, John F. Predation and Prey Community Structure: An Experimental Study of the Effect of Mosquito Larvae on the Protozoan Communities of Pitcher Plants. Ecology 55: 475-492. 1974.

Allen, Ruth McVaugh. A Study of Utricularia olivacea. Bartonia 29: 1-2. 1957-58.

Amagase, Shizuko. Digestive Enzymes in Insectivorous Plants. III. Acid Proteases in the Genus Nepenthes and Drosera peltata. Journal of Biochemistry 72: 73-81. 1972.

Amagase, Shizuko, Mayumi Mori and Shigeru Nakayama. Digestive Enzymes in Insectivorous Plants. IV. Enzymatic Digestion of Insects by Nepenthes aSecretion and Drosera peltata Extract: Proteolytic and Chtinolytic Activities. Journal of Biochemistry 72: 765-767. 1972.

Anderson, C. L., K. Bremer and E. M. Friis 2005. Dating Phylogenetically Basal Eudicots Using rbcL Sequences and Multiple Fossil Reference Points. American Journal of Botany 92(10): 1737–1748.

Anderson, Loran C. Stalking the Pygmy Bladderwort, Utricularia olivacea (Lentibulariaceae). Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 29: 72-74. 2000.

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. An Update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group Classification for the Orders and Families of Flowering Plants: APG II. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141(4): 399-436.  2003.

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. An Update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group Classification for the Orders and Families of Flowering Plants: APG III. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161(2): 105-121.  2009.


Bailey, Tim S. Miraculum Naturae - Venus's Flytrap. Trafford Publishing. 2008.

Barnhart, John Hendley. Segregation of Genera in Lentibulariaceae. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 6: 39-64. 1916.

Barnhart, John Hendley. Pinguicula caerulea. Addisonia 18: 21-22. 1933.

Barnhart, John Hendley. Pinguicula lutea. Addisonia 18: 23-24. 1933.

Barron, G. L. Nematophagous Fungi: A New Arthrobotrys with Nonseptate Conidia. Canadian Journal of Botany 57: 1371-1373. 1979.

Barthlott, Wilhelm, Stefan Porembski, Rüdiger Seine and Inge Theisen. The Curious World of Carnivorous Plants. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press. 2007.

Beal, W. J. Carnivorous Plants. Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science 1875B: 251-253. 1875.

Bell, C. Ritchie. A Cytotaxonomic Study of the Sarraceniaceae of North America. Journal of the Mitchell Society 65: 137-166. 1949.

Bell, C. Ritchie. Natural Hybrids in the Genus Sarracenia. Journal of the Mitchell Society 68: 55-80. 1952.

Bell, C. Ritchie. Sarracenia leucophylla Rafinesque. Journal of the Mitchell Society 70: 57-60. 1954.

Bell, C. Ritchie and Frederick W. Case. Natural Hybrids in the Genus Sarracenia. II. Current Notes on Distribution. Journal of the Mitchell Society 72: 142-152. 1956.

Benolken, R. M. and S. L. Jacobson. Response Properties of a Sensory Hair Excised from Venus's Flytrap. The Journal of General Physiology 56: 64-82. 1970.

Bernon, Gary L. Paper Wasp Nest in Pitcher Plant, Sarracenia purpurea L. Entomological News 80(6): 148. 1969.

Bradshaw, William E. Geography of Photoperiodic Response in Diapausing Mosquito. Nature 262: 384-385. 1976.

Breckpot, Christian. Aldrovanda vesiculosa: Description, Distribution, Ecology and Cultivation. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 26: 73-82. 1997.

Bringmann, G., Schlauer, J, Wolf, K., Rischer, H., Buschboom, U., Kreiner, A., Thiele, F., Duscheck, M., & L. Ake Assi. Cultivation of Triphyophyllum peltatum (Dioncophyllaceae), the part-time carnivorous plant. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 28: 7-13. 1999.

Bringmann, G., Wenzel, M., Bringmann, H., Ake Assi, L. Hass, F., & J. Schlauer. Uptake of the amino acid alanine by digestive leaves: proof of the carnivory in the tropical liana Triphyophyllum peltatum (Dioncophyllaceae). Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 30: 15-21. 2001.

Bringmann, G., Rischer, H., Schlauer, J., & K. Wolf. The tropical liana Triphyophyllum peltatum (Dioncophyllaceae): formation of carnivorous organs is only a facultative prerequisite for shoot elongation. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 31: 44-52. 2002.

Brittnacher, John. Drosera x hybrida Rest in Peace. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 40: 112-121. 2011.

Burgess, L. and J. G. Rempel. Collection of the Pitcherplant Mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii (Diptera: Culicidae), from Saskatchewan. The Canadian Entomologist 103: 886-887. 1971.


Carlquist, Sherwin. Wood Anatomy of Roridulaceae: Ecological and Phylogenetic Implications. American Journal of Botany 63(7): 1003-1008. 1976.

Casper, S. Jost. On Pinguicula macroceras Link in North America. Rhodora 64: 212-221. 1962.

Case, Frederic W., Jr. Some Michigan Records for Sarracenia purpurea Forma Heterophylla. Rhodora 58: 203-207. 1956.

Case, Frederic W. and Roberta B. Case. The Sarracenia rubra Complex. Rhodora 78: 270-325. 1976.

Case, Frederic W., Jr. and Roberta B. Case. Sarracenia alabamensis, A Newly Recognized Species from Central Alabama. Rhodora 76: 650-665. 1974.

Catalani, Michael. A Field Study of Sarracenia oreophila. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 33: 6-12. 2004.

Ceska, A. and M. A. M. Bell. Utricularia (Lentibulariaceae) in the Pacific Northwest. Madrono 22: 74-84. 1973.

Cheek, Martin and Malcolm Young. The Limonium Pregrinum of Carolus Clusius. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 23: 95-98. 1994.

Cheek, Martin. The Correct Names for the Subspecies of Sarracenia purpurea L. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 23: 69-73. 1994.

Chan, Michael M., Mallory M. Chan and Edward D. Chan. What Is the Evidence for Medicinal Value of Carnivorous Plants? Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 36: 83-86. 2007.

Christensen, Norman L. The Role of Carnivory in Sarracenia flava L. with Regard to Specific Nutrient Deficiencies. Journal of the Mitchell Society 92: 144-147. 1977.

Christophe, Alain. A South African Insectivorous Plant Trip. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 10: 96-101. 1981.

Clancy, Finbarr G. and Michael D. Coffey. Acid Phosphatase and Protease Release by the Insectivorous Plant Drosera rotundifolia. Canadian Journal of Botany 55: 480-488. 1977.

Claudi-Magnussen, Glenn. An Introduction to Genlisea. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 11: 13-16. 1982.

Cody, William and Stephen S. Talbot. The Pitcher Plant Sarracenia purpurea L. in the Northwestern Part of its Range. The Canadian Field-Naturalist 87: 318-320. 1973.

Conran, John G., Gunta Jaudzems and Neil D. Hallam. Droseraceae Gland and Germination Patterns Revisited: Support for Recent Molecular Phylogenetic Studies. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 36: 14-20. 2007.

Cronquist, Arthur. The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants. Houghton Mifflin. 1968.

Cross, Adam. Aldrovanda — The Waterwheel Plant. Poole, Dorset, England: Redfern Natural History Productions. 2012.

Cruise, James E. and Paul M. Catling. The Sundews (Drosera spp.) in Ontario. The Ontario Field Biologist 28: 1-6. 1974.


D'Amato, Peter. The Savage Garden. Berkeley, California: Ten Speed Press. 1998.

Darling, Thomas, Jr. Insectivorous Plants in the Poconos. Castanea 29: 126-128. 1964.

Darling, Thomas, Jr. and Stanwyn G. Shetler. Sarracenia x catesbaei Elliott (pro sp.) in the Pocono Mountains of Pennsylvania. Castanea 37(2): 133-137. 1972.

Darnowski, Douglas W. and Sarah Fritz. Prey Preference in Genlisea Small Crustaceans, Not Protozoa. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 39: 114-116. 2010.

Darwin, Charles. Insectivorous Plants. London: John Murray. 1875.

Darwin, Charles. Insectivorous Plants. 2nd ed., revised by Francis Darwin. London: John Murray, Albemarle Street. 1893.

DeBuhr, Larry. The Distribution of Darlingtonia californica. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 3: 24-26. 1974.

DeBuhr, Larry E. Phylogenetic Relationships of the Sarraceniaceae. Taxon 24(2/3): 297-306. 1975.

DeBuhr, Larry E. Wood Anatomy of the Sarraceniaceae; Ecological and Evolutionary Implications. Plant Systematics and Evolution 128: 59-169. 1977.

Degreef, John. The Electrochemical Mechanism of Trap Closure in Dionaea muscipula. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 17: 80-83,94. 1988.

Degreef, John. The Evolution of Aldrovanda and Dionaea Traps. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 17: 119-124. 1988.

Degreef, John. Early History of Drosera and Drosophyllum. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 18: 86-89. 1989.

Degreef, John. Evolutionary Patterns in Drosera. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 19: 11-16. 1990.

Degreef, John D. More on the Evolution of Drosera. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 19: 92. 1990.

Degreef, John D. The Origin of the Genus Byblis. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 19: 93-95. 1990.

Degreef, John D. Cephalotus follicularis: History and Evolution. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 19: 95103. 1990.

Degreef, John D. Fossil Aldrovanda. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 26: 93-97. 1997.

Devienne, Karina F., Maria Stella G. Raddi, Eliana A. Varanda and Wagner Vilegas. In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Some Natural and Semi-Synthetic Isocoumarins from Paepalanthus bromelioides. Z. Naturforsch. 57c: 85-88. 2002.

Dunsterville, G. C. K. Zygosepalum tatei in One of Its Natural Haunts. Orchid Digest 35: 239-242. 1971.


Elder, Christine Leigh. Reproductive Biology of Darlingtonia californica. Fremontia. The Journal of the California Native Plant Society. October 1994.

Ellison, Aaron M., Hannah L. Buckley, Thomas E. Miller and Nicholas J. Gotelli. Morphological Variation in Sarracenia purpurea (Sarraceniaceae): Geographic, Environmental, and Taxonomic Correlates. American Journal of Botany 91: 1930-1935. 2004.

Ellison, A. M. Nutrient Limitation and Stoichiometry of Carnivorous Plants. Plant Biology 8: 740-747. 2006.  =======4/17/2011================


Fashing, Norman James. Arthropod Associates of the Cobra Lily (Darlingtonia californica) Virginia Journal of Science 23(3): 92. 1981.

Fashing, Norman James. Biology of Sarraceniopus darlingtoniae (Histiostomatidae: Astigmata), An Obligatory Inhabitant of the Fluid-Filled Pitchers of Darlingtonia californica (Sarraceniaceae). Phytophaga XIV: 299-305. 2004.

Figueira, J. E. C., J. Vasconcellos-Neto and P. Jolivet. A New Protocarnivorous Plant, Paepalanthus bromelioides Silveira (Eriocaulaceae) from Brazil. Revue d'ecologie 49(1):3-9. 1994.

Fleischmann, Andreas. Philcoxia: A New Genus of Carnivorous Plant. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 41: 77-81. 2012.

Franck, Daniel. H. Early Histogenesis of the Adult Leaves of Darlingtonia californica (Sarraceniaceae) and Its Bearing on the Nature of Epiascidiate Foliar Appendages. American Journal of Botany 62(2): 116-132. 1975.

Franck, Daniel. H. Comparative Morphology and Early Leaf Histogenesis of Adult and Juvenile Leaves of Darlingtonia californica and Their Bearing on the Concept of Heterophylly. Botanical Gazette 137(1): 20-34. 1976.

Frank, J. H. and G. F. O'Meara. The Bromeliad Catopsis berteroniana Traps Terrestrial Arthropods But Harbors Wyeomyia Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae). Florida Entomologist 67: 418-424. 1984.

Fish, Durland and Donald W. Hall. Succession and Stratification of Aquatic Insects Inhabiting the Leaves of the Insectivorous Pitcher Plants, Sarracenia purpurea. American Midland Naturalist 99(1): 172-183. 1978.

Fish, Durland. Insect-Plant Relationships of the Insectivorous Pitcher Plant Sarracenia minor. The Florida Entomologist 59(2): 199-203. 1976

Forsyth, Adrian B. and Raleigh J. Robertson. K Reproductive Strategy and Larval Behavior of the Pitcher Plant Sarcophagid Fly, Blaesoxipha fletcheri. Canadian Journal of Zoology 53(2): 174-179. 1975.

Forterre, Yoel, Jan M. Skotheim, Jacques Dumais and L. Mahadevan. How the Venus Flytrap Snaps. Nature 433: 421-425. 2005.


Garrido, B, A. Hampe, T. Maranon and J. Arroyo. Regional Differences in Land Use Affect Population Performance of the The Threatened Insectivorous Plant Drosophyllum lusitanicum (Droseraceae). Diversity and Distribution 9: 335-350. 2003.

Gibson, Robert. Observations on Cephalotus in the Wild. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 28: 30-31. 1999.

Gibson, Robert. Red Aldrovanda from Near Esperance, Western Australia. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 33: 119-121. 2004.

Gibson, Thomas C. and Donald M. Waller. Evolving Darwin's most wonderful plant: ecological steps to a snap-trap. New Phytologist 183: 575-587. 2009.

Gibson, Dorothy Nash. Flora of Guatemala - Part X, Number 4 - Lentibulariaceae, Bladderwort Family. Fieldiana Botany 24: 315-328. 1974.

Gilchrist, A. J. and B. E. Juniper. An Excitable Membrane in the Stalked Glands of Drosera capensis L.. Planta (Berl.) 119: 143-147. 1974.

Givnish, T. J., E. L. Burkhardt, R. E. Happel and J. D. Weintraub. Carnivory in the Bromeliad Brocchinia reducta, with a Cost/Benefit Model for the General Restriction of Carnivorous Plants to Sunny, Moist, Nutrient-Poor Habitats. American Naturalist 124: 479-497. 1984.

Gleason, H. A. Botanical results of the Tyler-Duida Expedition. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 58: 277-506. 1931.

Godfrey, R. K. and H. Larry Stripling. A Synopsis of Pinguicula (Lentibulariaceae) in the Southeastern United States. The American Midland Naturalist 66(2): 395-409. 1961.

Gon, Sam, III. The Hawaii Population of Drosera anglica - a Tropical Twist on a Temperate Theme. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 23: 68-69. 1994.

Green, Sally., T. L. Green and Y. Heslop-Harrison. Seasonal Heterophylly and Leaf Gland Features in Triphyophyllum (Dioncophyllaceae) A New Carnivorous Plant Genus. Botanical Journal of the Linnaean Society 78: 99-116. 1979.


Haber, Erich. Utricularia geminiscapa at Mer Bleue and Range Extensions in Eastern Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist 93(4): 391-398. 1979.

Haberlandt, Gottlieb. Sinnesorgane im Pflanzenreich - V. Insectivores: Drosera and Drosophyllum. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 11: 66-73. 1982

Haberlandt, Gottlieb. Sinnesorgane im Pflanzenreich - V. Insectivores: Aldrovanda vesiculosa. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 10: 73,76-79. 1981.

Haberlandt, Gottlieb. Sinnesorgane im Pflanzenreich - V. Insectivores: Aldrovanda vesiculosa. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 10: 89,92-93. 1981.

Haberlandt, Gottlieb. Sinnesorgane im Pflanzenreich - Insectivores: Dionaea muscipula. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 11: 9,12,21. 1982.

Haberlandt, Gottlieb. Sinnesorgane im Pflanzenreich - Insectivores: Dionaea muscipula. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 11: 32-40. 1982.

Hansen, Carlo. Note on Drosera rotundifolia L. in Greenland. Botanisk Tidsskrift (Copenhagen) 67(4): 342-343. 1973.

Harper, Roland M. Botanical Explorations in Georgia During the Summer of 1901. II Noteworthy Species. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 30: 319-342. 1903.

Harper, Roland M. Explorations in the Coastal Plain of Georgia During the Season of 1902. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 31: 21-23. 1904.

Harper, Roland M. Phytogeographical Explorations in the Coastal Plain of Georgia In 1904. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 32: 451-467. 1905.

Harper, Roland M. Some New or Otherwise Noteworthy Plants from the Coastal Plain of Georgia. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 33: 229-245. 1906.

Harper, Roland M. The American Pitcher-Plants. Journal of the Mitchell Society 34: 110-125. 1918.

Hartmeyer, Siegfried. Carnivory in Byblis Revisited II: The Phenomenon of Symbiosis on Insect Trapping Plants. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 27: 110-114. 1998.

Hartmeyer, Irmgard and S. R. H. Hartmeyer. Snap-Tentacles and Runway Lights: Summary of Comparative Examination of Drosera Tentacles. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 39: 101-113. 2010.

Hartmeyer, Irmgard and Siegfried R. H. Comparison of Byblis 'Goliath' (B. filifolia), Byblis 'David' (B. liniflora), and Their Putative Fertile Hybrid. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 40: 129-135. 2011.

Hasebe, Mitsuyasu. How Carnivorous Plants Have Evolved from Non-carnivores. Iden (heritage). Science of Creatures. Volume 59. No.4: 33-37. 2005.

Hellquist, C. Barre. A White-Flowered Form of Utricularia purpurea from New Hampshire. Rhodora 76: 19. 1974.

Hermanova, Z., Kvacek, J. Late Cretaceous Palaeoaldrovanda, Not Seeds of a Carnivorous Plant, But Eggs of an Insect. Journal of the National Museum (Prague), Natural History Series 179(9): 105-118. 2010

Heslop-Harrison, Yolande. Scanning Electron Microscopy of Fresh Leaves of Pinguicula. Science 167: 172-174. 1970.

Heslop-Harrison, Yolande and R. B. Knox. A Cytochemical Study of the Leaf-Gland Enzymes of Insectivorous Plants of the Genus Pinguicula. Planta (Berl.) 96: 183-211. 1971.

Heslop-Harrison, Yolande. Carnivorous Plants a Century After Darwin. Endeavor 35: 114-122. 1976.

Hetch, Adolph. The Somatic Chromosomes of Sarracenia. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 76(1): 7-9. 1949.

Hilu, Khidir W.,Thomas Borsch, Kai Muller, Douglas E. Soltis, Pamela S. Soltis, Vincent Savolanen, Mark W. Chase, Martyn P. Powell, Lawrence A. Alice, Roger Evans, Herve Sauquet, Christoph Neinhuis, Tracy A. B. Slotta, Jens G. Rohwer, Christopher S. Cambell and Lars W. Chatrou. Angiosperm phylogeny based on <011>matK sequence information. American Journal of Botany 90: 1758-1776. 2003.

Hobbhahn, N, H. Kuchmeister and S. Porembski. Pollination Biology of Mass Flowering Terrestrial Utricularia Species (Lentibulariaceae) in the Indian Western Ghats. Plant Biology (Stuttg) 8: 791-804. 2006.

Hodick, Dieter and Andreas Sievers. On the Mechanism of Trap Closure of Venus Flytrap (Dionaea muscipula Ellis). Planta 179: 32-42. 1989.


Istock, Conrad A., Steven S. Wasserman and Harold Zimmer. Ecology and Evolution of the Pitcher-Plant Mosquito: 1. Population Dynamics and Laboratory Responses to Food and Population Density. Evolution 29: 296-312. 1975.


Jaffe, M. J. The Role of ATP in Mechanically Stimulated Rapid Closure of the Venus's Flytrap. Plant Physiology 51: 17-18. 1973.

Jentsch, J. Enzymes from Carnivorous Plants (Nepenthes). Isolation of the Protease Nepenthacin. FEBS Letters 21: 273-276. 1972.

Jobson, Richard W., Rasmus Nielsen, Liisa Laakkonen, Marten Wikstrom and Victor A. Albert. Adaptive Evolution of Cytochrome C Oxidase: Infrastructure for a Carnivorous Plant Radiation. PNAS 101(52): 18064-18068. 2004.

Joel, Daniel M. Mimicry in Carnivorous Pitcher Plants - Fact or Legend? Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 18: 12-14. 1989.

Jolivet, Pierre. Interrelationships between Insects and Plants. CRC Press LLC. 1998.

Jones, Frank Morton. Pitcher-Plant Insects. Entomological News 15: 14-17. 1904.

Jones, Frank Morton. Pitcher-Plant Insects-II. Entomological News 18: 413-420. 1907.

Jones, Frank Morton. Pitcher-Plant Insects-III. Entomological News 19: 150-156. 1908.

Jones, Frank Morton. Another Pitcher-Plant Insect (Diptera, Sciarinae). Entomological News 31: 91-94. 1920.

Jones, Frank Morton. Pitcher Plants and Their Moths. Natural History 21: 296-316. 1922.

Joyeux, M., Vincent, O., and Marmottant, P. Mechanical Model of the Utrafast Underwater Trap of Utricularia. Physical Review. E83. 021911. 2011.

Judd, W. W. Studies of the Byron Bog in Southwestern Ontario X. Inquilines and Victims of the Pitcher-Plant, Sarracenia purpurea L. The Canadian Entomologist 91: 171-180. 1959.

Juniper, B. E., R. J. Robins, and D. M. Joel. The Carnivorous Plants. San Diego: Academic Press Limited. 1989.


Komiya, Sadashi, and Kiyoshi Shimizu. Insectivorous Plants. Tokyo: New Science. 1978.

Komiya, Sadashi. The Insectivorous Plants. Tokyo: Japan Insectivorous Plant Society Publication. 1994.

Kondo, Katsuhiko. Chromesome Number of Carnivorous Plants. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 96(3): 322-328. 1969.

Kondo, Katsuhiko. A New Species of Nepenthes from the Philippines. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 96(6): 653-655. 1969.

Kondo, Katsuhiko. A Comparison of Variability in Utricularia cornuta and U. juncea. American Journal of Botany 59(1): 23-37. 1972.

Kondo, Katsuhiko. The Karyotypes of the Species of Byblis. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 100: 367-369.1973.

Kondo, Katsuhiko. The Sunshine Pitchers. Garden Journal (NYBG) 24(1): 14-15. 1974.

Kondo, Katsuhiko, Michiharu Segawa and Kunito Nehira. Anatomical Studies on Seeds and Seedlings of Some Utricularia (Lentibulariaceae). Brittonia 30: 89-95. 1978.

Korolas, Jim. Cultivating Drosera linearis (Goldie). Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 11: 19-20,27. 1982

Krajina, V. J. Sarraceniaceae, A New Family for British Columbia. Syesis 1: 121-124. 1968.

Kurata, Shigeo. Biology of Nepenthes. Iden (Heritage) 26(10): 43-51. 1972.


Lamb, Randy. Pinguicula villosa The Northern Butterwort. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 20: 73-77. 1991.

Lavarack, P. S. The Northern Rainbow Plant - Byblis liniflora. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 10: 102-103. 1981.

Legendre, Laurent and Thomas Cieslak. Pinguicula vulgaris L. in the Champagne State of France: Life in an Alkaline Bog. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 36: 104-113. 2007.

Li, Hongqi. Observation of Reproductive Organs of Sarraceniaceae with SEM LV Model. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 39: 56-61. 2010.

Lichtner, F. T. and R. M. Spanswick. Ion Relations in Dionaea. Plant Physiology 59, Suppl., 84. 1977.

Lloyd, Francis E. The Carnivorous Plants. Waltham, Mass.: Chronica Botanica Company. 1942.

Lowrie, Allen. Carnivorous Plants of Australia. Volume 1. University of Western Australia Press. 1987.

Lowrie, Allen. Carnivorous Plants of Australia. Volume 2. University of Western Australia Press. 1989.

Lowrie, Allen. Carnivorous Plants of Australia. Volume 3. University of Western Australia Press. 1998.


MacFarlane, J. M. Observations on Sarracenia. Journal of Botany 45: 1-7. 1907.

Maguire, Bassett, Richard S. Cowan, John J. Wurdack and Collaborators. The Botany of the Guayana Highland. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 8(2): 87-96.  1953.

Maguire, Bassett. On the Flora of the Guayana Highland. Biotropica 2(2): 85-100. 1970.

Maguire, Bassett. Wurdack and Collaborators. The Botany of the Guayana Highland. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 29(2): 87-96.  1978.

Mameli, E. Ricerche anatomiche, fisiologiche e biologiche sulla Martynia lutea Lindl. (Anatomical, physiological and biological research on Martynia lutea). Atti dell' Universita di Pavia, Serie 2, 16, 137-188. 1916.

Mandossian, Adrienne J. Plant Associates of Sarracenia purpurea (Pitcher Plant) in Acid and Alkaline Habitats. The Michigan Botanist 4: 107-114. 1965.

Mandossian, Adrienne J. Variations in the Leaf of Sarracenia purpurea (Pitcher Plant). The Michigan Botanist 5: 26-35. 1966.

Mandossian, Adrienne J. Germination of Seeds in Sarracenia purpurea (Pitcher Plant). The Michigan Botanist 5: 67-79. 1966.

Markgraf, F. Uber Laubblatt-Homologien und Verwandtschaftliche Zusammenhange. Planta, Bd. 46: 414-446.  1955.

McDaniel, Sidney. The Genus Sarracenia (Sarraceniaceae). Bulletin of Tall Timbers Research Station. No. 9. 1971.

McPherson, Stewart. Pitcher Plants of the Americas. Blacksburg, Virginia: The McDonald & Woodward Publishing Company. 2007.

McPherson, Stewart. Glistening Carnivores The Sticky-Leaved Insect-Eating Plants. Poole, England: Redfern Natural History Productions. 2009.

McPherson, Stewart. Pitcher Plants of the Old World. (Vol. 1 & 2) Poole, Dorset, England: Redfern Natural History Productions. 2009.

McPherson, Stewart. Carnivorous Plants and their Habitats. (Vol. 1 & 2) Poole, Dorset, England: Redfern Natural History Productions. 2010.

McPherson, Stewart and Donald Schnell. Sarraceniaceae of North America. Poole, Dorset, England: Redfern Natural History Productions. 2011.

McPherson, Stewart, Andreas Wistuba, Andreas Fleischmann and Joachim Nerz. Sarraceniaceae of South America. Poole, Dorset, England: Redfern Natural History Productions. 2011.

Meindl, George A. Pollination Biology of Darlingtonia californica, the California Pitcher Plant. Master’s Thesis, Humboldt State University. 2009.

Mellichamp, Larry. Botanical History of CP II: Darlingtonia. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 7: 82-85. 1978.

Mellichamp, Larry. Field Studies on CP at UMBS. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 11: 10-11,13. 1982.

Mellichamp, T. Lawrence. Cobras of the Pacific Northwest. Natural History 92: 46-51. 1983.

Meyers-Rice, Barry A. An Anthocyanin-Free Variant of Darlingtonia californica: Newly Discovered and Already Imperiled. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 26: 129-132. 1997.

Meyers-Rice, Barry A. Darlingtonia californica "Othello." Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 27: 40-42. 1998.

Miles, D. Howard, Udom Kokpol, Leon H. Zalkowi, Steven J. Steindeli, and James B. Naborsi. Tumor Inhibitors I: Preliminary Investigation of Antitumor Activity of Sarracenia flava. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 63: 613-615. 1974.

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